# An Eventful Horizon

Sep 26, 2023*Scientists utilize elements of the Haramein Quantum Gravity Holographic Solution to solve the Black Hole Information Loss Paradox*

##### By: William Brown, scientist at the International Space Federation

In our quotidian experience the feature of spacetime locality seems to be an indelible feature of a rational reality; the idea that effects follow their causes gives us a sense (however illusionary) that there is a natural chronology to our reality. From the theory of relativity, we know that the simultaneity of relativity requires that no signal or information travel faster than the speed of light. Faster-than-light, or superluminal signals results in closed timelike curves, and in general relativity closed timelike curves can break causality with remarkable and unsettling consequences. At the classical level, they induce causal paradoxes disturbing enough to motivate conjectures that explicitly prevent their existence (Hawking's chronology protection conjecture). If a signal were to travel faster than the speed of light, an effect might precede its cause—so for instance a superluminal spaceship could make a roundtrip voyage and return to a frame-of-reference where it had not yet departed. However, such seeming faster-than-light causal paradoxes, like our FTL spaceship arriving before it departed, are an erroneous interpretation of time-like closed loops in relativity (see, for example, Hossenfelder's explanation "I Think Faster Than Light Travel is Possible, Here's Why).

The conceptual challenge of nonlocality extends to quantum mechanics as well, in which ontic theories that posit nonlocal realism—where particles really exist prior to state reduction or "collapse of the wavefunction"—are considered to be incompatible with relativity because of the seeming superluminal update of state, and hence interpretations that are local but deny real particles prior to reduction of the state vector are preferred, like the Bohr-Heisenberg model of the Copenhagen interpretation. Nevertheless, non-locality is consistent with current scientific knowledge. Closed timelike curves are valid solutions of Einstein’s equations in general relativity. Thus, the originators of the AMPS firewall paradox, which was posited in an attempt to preserve locality while simultaneously providing a mechanism to preserve quantum information, have forgone this conjecture and solved the AMPS paradox by permitting nonlocal action via Einstein-Rosen bridges. No matter how indelible locality and classical causal structure seems to our rationale, it seems we may need to accept that both quantum physics and relativity theory have properties that permit non-local interactions: in the former there are Einstein Podolsky Rosen (EPR) correlations, and in the latter, there are Einstein Rosen bridges (ERb), more popularly known as wormholes.

As the monikers for each non-local behavior would imply, they were first proposed and described by Einstein and his colleagues. Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen brought to light EPR correlations, or quantum entanglement as it is more popularly known, to show how certain solutions in quantum mechanics—like the superposition of the wavefunction—must be erroneous, as they seemingly permit instantaneous interconnection would seem to require faster-than light signaling [1]. Interestingly, Einstein and Rosen also subsequently proposed and described the physical process by which quantum entanglement may occur without violation of the light-speed limit, and that is via ERbs, a bridge geometry in spacetime between two universes which they originally discovered as a solution to the particle problem in the general theory of relativity, which results from the singularities of point particles like the electron— they were describing fundamental particles as wormholes [2].

If fundamental particles are quantum wormholes, then the "spooky" nonlocal connection between them (entanglement) may be the result of their ERb spacetime geometry, what physicists Juan Maldacena and Leonard Susskind have summarized as ERb = EPR [3]; which means quantum entanglement is the result of wormhole connections in spacetime, or correspondingly space is multiply-connected via quantum entangled spacetime frames. While both ERb and EPR appear to permit non-locality, it is not clear if wormholes are indeed traversable (although there have been many studies showing how they can potentially be traversable), so that any real detectable signal could be transferred via these spacetime shortcuts, and no viable mechanism has been thought of to utilize quantum entanglement for superluminal signal transmission:

In the present work we describe a new quantum-mechanical paradox in which the presence or absence of an interference pattern in a path-entangled two photon system with variable entanglement, controlled by measurement choice, would seem to permit retrocausal signaling from one observer to another. We also present an analysis of this scheme, showing how the subtleties of the quantum formalism block the potential signal. In particular, even when interference patterns can be switched off and on, there is always a “signal” interference pattern and an “anti-signal” interference pattern that mask any observable interference when they are added, even when entanglement and coherence are simultaneously present. [4] "An Inquiry into the Possibility of Nonlocal Quantum Communication", John G. Cramer and Nick Herbert; arXiv:1409.5098 (2014).

Indeed, it is largely accepted that although quantum entanglement maintains a highly correlated state transcending locality limitations, the outcome of any detection or measurement is always random, so there can be no useful information transmitted in the process.

This leads us to another seeming conundrum that has existed at the crossroads of quantum theory and general relativity for over 45 years, ever since Stephen Hawking’s analysis of the quantum vacuum around event horizons showed that black holes may evaporate, leading to the so-called *information loss paradox*. The problem arises because particle-pairs of the quantum vacuum—readers of our RSF articles will be well aware that the vacuum of space is not empty, but instead has an immensely large mass-energy density—that get separated by the event horizon of a black hole are entangled, but no information can be derived from the escaped entanglement particle pair (remember nonlocal quantum communication is a no-go), so as energy is slowly radiated away from the black hole the entangled Hawking particles carry no information about the inner microstates (volume entropy) of the evaporating black hole. The information seems to be lost, which would be a direct violation of physical laws akin to “energy is never created nor destroyed”. In present-day (accepted) theory, as the black hole evaporates its entanglement entropy inexorably continually increases, which is to say the “randomness” of the radiated Hawking particles continually increases, so that whatever ordered information was contained within the event horizon (its volume entropy) is converted into random radiation and seemingly lost forever.

Yet, there are solutions to this paradox that rely on the ERb = EPR equivalence conjecture, in which there is a relationship and connection between what is inside the event horizon of the black hole with what is on the outside, such that information need not be irretrievably lost or destroyed but may be accessible via the quantum wiring of spacetime. In an article in Scientific American, physicist Ahmed Almheiri—one of the originators of the AMPS firewall paradox (see my 2016 article “Firewalls or Cool Horizons?”)—describes recent work with Juan Maldacena and others in which they resolve the AMPS firewall and information loss paradox by showing how, via ERb = EPR, the information within the event horizon of a black hole is “secretly on the outside” [5, How the Inside of a Black Hole Is Secretly on the Outside, Scientific American, 2022]. Essentially, wormhole connections between maximally entangled black holes allow them to swap their volume entropy, which creates “black hole islands” within their interiors. The black hole island is the event horizon volume from another distant black hole entangled via a wormhole connection.

What Almheiri and Maldacena discovered is that when these black hole islands form, because of the no-cloning theorem in quantum mechanics, their entropy counts to the surface entropy of the black hole and is no longer lost within the interior (the inaccessible region forever concealed within the event horizon). So, for information to be liberated, all a particle need do is travel *deeper *into the black hole interior into the island, and the information will be accessible on the surface horizon.

This conclusion is remarkably similar to the generalized holographic solution discovered by physicist Nassim Haramein in 2012. In his seminal work “quantum gravity and the holographic mass” Haramein demonstrated that there is a simple and fundamental relationship between the information content, in terms of PSUs** inside the volume of a black hole,** and the PSU information **on the surface event horizon**, giving a ratio that when multiplied by the Planck mass (the energy of that ratio), generates the exact mass-energy of the black hole [6]. The Schwarzschild solution to Einstein’s field equations gives the exact same answer for the mass of a black hole, however, in the case of Haramein’s generalized holographic solution using *quantum voxels , *

**we have a quantized gravitational solution**(in fine-grained or discrete quantities). For an in-depth exploration of the Haramein quantum gravity holographic solution see RSF physicist Dr. Inés Urdaneta's mutli-part series "The Generalized Holographic Model" (available for free in the Resonance Science Foundation science news & articles section).

Haramein’s generalized holographic solution predicted the ERb = EPR correspondence before it was popularized by Susskind, as Haramein described the apparent rest mass of the fundamental hadron particle the proton as being the result of the bandwidth of information transfer from the interior entanglement entropy with the surface via Planck particle wormholes comprising the quantum black hole.

To understand this, imagine the surface horizon of the proton treated with Haramein’s holographic solution, in which each Planck unit on the surface (there are ~10^{40} Planck on the surface of one proton) is the termination of a tiny Planck-scale vortex wormhole that is connected to (and thus entangled with) another Planck on another proton’s surface. Then imagine that each of the ~10^{40} wormhole Planck terminations of one proton is connected to a different proton, like network cables connecting one proton with ~10^{40} others in the rest of the universe. Of course, each of these ~10^{40} protons are themselves connected to another ~10^{40} protons, which results in ~10^{80} connected protons, which is the estimated number of protons in the universe today. A new picture emerges wherein the Planck vacuum structure generates a fractal network of wormholes where the proton volume is an information hub, and the surface is the through-put capacity of the hub to communicate with other protons.

Of course, Haramein’s generalized holographic solution was equivalently applied to astronomical scale black holes (the proton being a quantum or microscopic scale black hole), so he had predicted the information, mass, and energy of all black holes was the result of the interiors being “information hubs” via a fractalized spacetime wormhole network—what we described in later publications as the unified spacememory network, and subsequently utilized this connected universe perspective to describe the origins of consciousness and the evolution and development of all organized matter to higher orders of organization and synergetic order [7].

So from Haramein’s discovery, we see that the Planck information within the volume of all protons in the universe is unified and shared across ~10^{40} connections on each proton. The result is that all the information of all protons is present in the volume Planck information of one proton. From what we learned from Haramein’s holographic solution, the mass of the object is the result of the information within the volume (~10^{60} Plancks in each proton) communicating across the boundary through ~10^{40} connections to all other protons. The difference between the two, what Haramein describes as a fundamental universal ratio (which he defines with the greek-letter most commonly used for physical ratios, phi *φ*) is the mass-energy-information of the Planck Spherical Units inside that do not have access to a Planck wormhole termination on the surface, adding up to the rest mass of the proton (~10^{-20}):

*In simple terms, there is a larger number of Plancks in the volume than the number of Planck wormhole terminations on the surface, thus only a certain amount of information-energy remains expressed locally and that amount of information-energy happens to equal the mass of the proton.*

One could think of it as all the outgoing information inside trying to transmit through the event horizon, and encountering a resistance or entropy since there is more information within the volume than the surface can transmit, which leaves a local mass-energy equivalent to the mass of the proton. Yet, when we examine all the other protons acting on one, or the incoming information, then the strong confinement mass-energy value is found for the proton-to-proton interaction, almost as a pressure exerted by the information of all other protons communicating with the one:

Since this is true for cosmological objects as well, then the mass and the confining force of gravity from the nuclei of atoms to universal structures, such as galaxies and stars, are the result of the “impedance” of the universal information network across event horizons — the network singing across scales… “the music of the spheres.”

While the approach taken by Almheiri has some key differences, which can only be expected since most physicists are coming from a model that views the world in terms of randomness and “isolated systems”, and only now discovering in their own equations that everything in the universe is fundamentally and inextricably connected, it is interesting to see such disparate approaches converging on the same conclusions… a strong indication that the approach is the correct one to realize a fully unified theory of quantum gravity and unified physics!

As stated in the Scientific American article: *the origins of the information paradox can be traced back to the incompatibility between the sequestering of information by the event horizon and the quantum-mechanical requirement of information flow outside the black hole. Naive resolutions of this tension lead to drastic modifications of the structure of black holes; however, subtle yet dramatic effects from fluctuating wormholes change everything. What emerges is a self-consistent picture that lets a black hole retain its regular structure as predicted by general relativity, albeit with the presence of an implicit though powerful nonlocality. This nonlocality is screaming that we should consider a portion of the black hole's interior—the island—as part of the exterior, as a single unit with the outside radiation. Thus, information can escape a black hole not by surmounting the insurmountable event horizon but by simply falling deeper into the island *[5].

It is interesting to see that the originators of the AMPS firewall paradox have abandoned the theory in favor of nonlocality. Realizing that the equations of physics from general relativity to Feynman's *path integral *are all permitting Einstein-Rosen bridge shortcuts across multiply-connected spacetime, it is becoming all-too apparent that wormholes —no matter how exotic they may seem to our locality-centered worldview— must be considered as a foundational property of the structure of spacetime and Nature seems to have a way of permitting subtle nonlocality without generating blatantly apparent cause-and-effect violations. Yet nevertheless, retrocausal signaling (i.e. nonlocal quantum communication) is occurring in a seemingly nuanced way, and no information is ever lost to the universe. As we see from Haramein's generalized holographic solution, the universe is an immensely connected network (where the information of any one particle is shared across all particles in a truly holographic manner via the planckian micro-wormhole connectivity architecture of the proton surface horizon), and since fundamental particles are micro-black holes, this extends equally to astronomical scale black holes, the interiors of which are information hubs linking together spacetime across the universe.

#### References:

[1] A. Einstein, B. Podolsky and N. Rosen, "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality be Considered Complete?" Phys. Rev. 47, 777-80 (1935).

[2] A. Einstein and N. Rosen, “The Particle Problem in the General Theory of Relativity,” *Phys. Rev.*, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 73–77, Jul. 1935, doi: 10.1103/PhysRev.48.73

[3] J. Maldacena and L. Susskind, “Cool horizons for entangled black holes,” *Fortschr. Phys.*, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 781–811, Sep. 2013, doi: 10.1002/prop.201300020

[4] "An Inquiry into the Possibility of Nonlocal Quantum Communication", John G. Cramer and Nick Herbert; arXiv:1409.5098 (2014)

[5] Ahmed Almheiri, How the Inside of a Black Hole Is Secretly on the Outside, Scientific American, 2022.

[6] Haramein, N. (2012). Quantum Gravity and the Holographic Mass, *Physical Review & Research International*, ISSN: 2231-1815, Page 270-292** **

[7] Haramein, N., Brown W., & Val Baker, A. K. F. (2016). The Unified Spacememory Network: from cosmogenesis to consciousness, Journal of Neuroquantology.